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GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications)

GSM stands for Global System for Mobile Communications. It is a standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe protocols for second-generation (2G) digital cellular networks used by mobile phones.

  • Widespread Adoption: GSM is the most widely used cell phone standard globally. It was first deployed in Finland in 1991, and since then, it has become the de facto standard in over 200 countries.

  • SIM Cards: One of the key features of GSM is the use of SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) cards. These small removable cards store user data and allow customers to switch phones while keeping the same phone number and service provider.

  • Services: Besides voice calls, GSM networks support data services such as SMS (Short Message Service) and limited internet access via GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) and later EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution).

  • Network Structure: GSM networks operate in a number of different frequency ranges (most commonly, 900 MHz and 1800 MHz in Europe and Asia, and 850 MHz and 1900 MHz in North America and Latin America). They use a combination of frequency division multiple access (FDMA) and time division multiple access (TDMA).

GSM has played a crucial role in the global adoption of mobile technology, allowing for widespread mobile communication and forming the basis for the development of more advanced wireless technologies.

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